coping with discrimination scale

Umaña-Taylor created Likert-type scale items to quantitatively assess the experiences described in Phinney and Chavira’s study. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. All researchers have permission to use the 6-item DCSS, with the following citation: To download the DCSS in English, click here. Finally, incremental validity evidence was obtained in Study 4 (N = 220), where it was shown that the CDS explained variance in outcome variables (i.e., depression, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and ethnic identity) that could not be explained by general coping strategies. Few studies have examined coping strategies specific to ethnic-racial discrimination among Latino youth. c. Expanded Everyday Discrimination Scale • A 10th item was added to the original scale: “You are followed around in stores.” • This scale was used in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the South African Study of Stress and Health study (SASH) Harvard Graduate School of Education. Adolescents’ perception of the best way to deal with discrimination is assessed by asking adolescents to select from five different coping strategies (e.g., “Talking to the person and clarify common misconceptions about ethnic groups” and “Work hard to prove them wrong”) the best way they felt one should deal with issues of discrimination. Parental ethnic socialization and adolescent coping with problems related to ethnicity. [Multidimensional assessment of coping: validation of the Brief COPE among French population]. Phinney, J. S., & Chavira, V. (1995). Total scores range from 22 - 132; higher scores indicate higher levels of coping. Profiles of coping with ethnic-racial discrimination and Latina/o adolescents’ adjustment. 2019 Apr 16;10:694. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00694. by . At times, racism is overt, such as the use of racial slurs, graffiti, or even violence. and coping with urban inequality in the number of discrimination. eCollection 2018. Mindfulness (N Y). 1– 9 Health consequences of discrimination also vary according to personal coping responses. Stress and coping research provides ample evidence demonstrating that psychological manifestations of social stress are significantly mediated by personal coping behaviors.  |  c. Expanded Everyday Discrimination Scale A 10th item was added to the original scale: “You are followed around in stores.” This scale was used in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the South African Study of Stress and Health study (SASH) The Discrimination Coping Strategies Scale (DCSS) was developed by Umaña-Taylor based on Phinney’s and Chavira’s (1995) qualitative work in which they interviewed a sample (n = 60) of adolescents (ages 16 to 18) from diverse ethnic minority backgrounds. 33 Participants were asked each of the 9 items on the scale (e.g., “You are treated with less respect than other people are.”), and responded how often each item happened related to their HIV status, their race, and their sexual orientation. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. (2008). Psychology, Medicine. A comprehensive review of the psychometric properties of the Drug Abuse Screening Test. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (N = 328) identified 5 factors: Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, Resistance, and Detachment, with internal consistency reliability estimates ranging from .72 to .90. Perceived discrimination was measured using two separate instruments: (1) the Race-Related Events Scale (RES) 24 and (2) the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale. Puckett et al. Jones, S. M., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., McDermott, E. R., Sladek, M.R., & Rivas-Drake, D. (2020). The first measure is the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale.22 Eight items from this scale were asked, including questions COMPARING MEASURES OF RACIAL/ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION 833. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5, 31-53, Harvard University Graduate School of EducationLarsen Hall, 61314 Appian WayCambridge, MA 02138, The Discrimination Coping Strategies Scale (DCSS) was developed by, based on Phinney’s and Chavira’s (1995) qualitative work in which they interviewed a sample (n = 60) of adolescents (ages 16 to 18) from diverse ethnic minority backgrounds. 2004 May;10(2):169-176. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.10.2.169. Adolescents in the Aggressive coping style mentioned the use of Verbal Retort, without mentioning the use of any proactive strategy. 2018 Feb 27;9:53. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00053. The DCSS, a 6-item scale (dealbest, dealtalk, deaproud, dlwrkhrd, dealrude, dlignore), assesses two different aspects of coping strategies: (a) adolescents’ perception of what they believe is the best coping strategy against discrimination or negative remarks about one’s ethnic or racial background was, and (b) how often adolescents have used specific discrimination coping strategies. 2008 Jun;31(3):323-35. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.06.003. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (N = 328) identified 5 factors: Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, Resistance, and Detachment, with internal consistency reliability estimates ranging from .72 to .90. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. The moderating role of ethnic-racial identity for the association between discrimination, coping, and adjustment among adolescents of color. Epub 2006 Nov 21. 2018 Aug;9(4):1100-1109. doi: 10.1007/s12671-017-0845-4. doi:10.1007/s10964-020-01360-5. Few studies have examined coping strategies specific to ethnic-racial discrimination among Latino youth. Investigation of discrimination variety count of preparation for each scale by making culture and communities. An expanded table is provided in ESM Table 2. They issued a 20-item version of the Coping with Discrimination … Coping Response to Discrimination. 2020 Jan;76(1):176-194. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22865. The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC) was used to measure experienced discrimination and anticipated discrimination. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Discrimination Coping Strategies Scale (DCSS) including its factor structure, validity, and longitudinal measurement invariance. The validity evidence was similar across racial groups and for males and females. Journal of Adolescence, 65, 189-195. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.03.011, McDermott, E. R., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Martinez-Fuentes, S. (2019). NIH ll researchers have permission to use the 6-item DCSS, with the following citation: If you are planning to translate the DCSS into other languages, please send the final version of the measure and any information on how the measure held up in analyses to. The item “People act as if they think you are not smart” was modified as “People act as if you are dangerous” to reflect a bias against Asians since COVID-19. The Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) The Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) is an even shorter measure of resilient coping, designed by Sinclair and Walston (2004), to capture an individual’s ability to cope with stress in highly adaptive ways. NLM Profiles of coping with ethnic-racial discrimination and Latina/o adolescents’ adjustment. Principal Component Analysis of Types of Anti-Stigma Strategies Obtained From the Stigma Coping Orientation Scales (SCOS), Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA-3) and Group Identification Measure. The use of the Coping with Discrimination scale (Wei, Alvarez, Ku, Russell, & Bonett, 2010) with a TGD sample extends prior work done with sexual minority individuals (Ngamake, Walch, & Raveepatarakul, 2014). Phinney and Chavira’s results indicated that adolescents used five different strategies to deal with discrimination. Adolescents were classified as using Passive coping style if they only mentioned Ignore as a way of dealing with discrimination. eCollection 2019. However, it can also frequently arise in more subtle forms, such as stereotyping, assumptions, or exclusion. Participants completed a 90-min semistructured interview. A longitudinal examination of Latino adolescents’ ethnic identity, coping with discrimination, and self-esteem. USA.gov. Family ethnic socialization predicts better academic outcomes via proactive coping with discrimination and increased self-efficacy. Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI), American Indian or Native American, Black, Latinx, Non-White Multi-ethnic, and American Arab, Middle Eastern, and North African (AMENA) adolescent. The strength of identification with an ethnic group is found to be … A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Social Work and Psychology) in The University of Michigan 2012 . Four studies were conducted to develop and validate the Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS). In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (N = 328) identified 5 factors: Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, Resistance, and Detachment, with internal consistency reliability estimates ranging from .72 to .90. The Protective Role of Mindfulness in the Relationship Between Perceived Discrimination and Depression. McDermott, E. R., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Martinez-Fuentes, S. (2018). We used the 5-item Everyday Discrimination Scale 24 (1 = Never, 5 = A lot; α = 0.93; M = 1.87; SD = 0.93). Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(5), 908-923. doi:10.1007/s10964-018-0958-7, Montoro, J., Kilday, J., Rivas-Drake, D., Ryan, A., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. Data came from four waves of a longitudinal study of 323 Latino adolescents (Wave 1 Mage= 15.31 years, SD= .76; … Experiences of discrimination were assessed using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. This study examined the associations between different forms of ethnic discrimination and levels of perceived stress in Russian immigrants living in Germany, taking into account potential moderating (in-group identification) and mediating (coping and social support) … All 60 women met DSM-IVdiagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder as assessed by the appropriate segment of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. Using data (N = 2,109) from a large-scale epidemiological study of Filipino Americans, this study examines whether ethnic identity is linked to mental health and reduces the stress of discrimination. HHS Isok Kim . The DCSS, a 6-item scale (dealbest, dealtalk, deaproud, dlwrkhrd, dealrude, dlignore), assesses two different aspects of coping strategies: (a) adolescents’ perception of what they believe is the best coping strategy against discrimination or negative remarks about one’s ethnic or racial background was, and (b) how often adolescents have used specific discrimination coping strategies. J Subst Abuse Treat. Friedlander ML, Friedman ML, Miller MJ, Ellis MV, Friedlander LK, Mikhaylov VG. McDermott, E. R., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Zeiders, K. H. (2019). Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Subculture of relationships in the effect, given this is a generating milieu of discrimination including the racial and behavior. Four studies were conducted to develop and validate the Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS). To assess the frequency by which adolescents have engaged in different types of coping strategies, adolescents are asked to record how often, on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = never, 3 = sometimes, and 5 = very often), they have used each coping strategy when they experienced discrimination. J Couns Psychol. Puckett JA, Maroney MR, Wadsworth LP, Mustanski B, Newcomb ME. This relationship remained in fully adjusted models (60.6±28.0, P<0.05). ObjectiveExperiences of ethnic discrimination may constitute major stressors for ethnic minority groups. Um. Shapes Epub 2019 Sep 13. We use 22 Likert-type items from the original 25-item scale, each of which is rated from 1 (never like me) to 6 (always like me). Sixty women with borderline personality disorder were recruited at the department of psychiatry and psychotherapy of the University of Freiburg in Germany and at the Psychiatric Hospital, Meissenberg, Zug, Switzerland. The Coping with Discrimination Scale is used to determine how minority individuals respond to discrimination. Four scales were provided to college students including, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), The Index of Race-Related Stress (Brief Version) (IRRS), the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire (PEDQ), and the Coping Inventory (COPE). Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Vargas-Chanes, D., Garcia, C. D., & Gonzales-Backen, M. (2008). Measuring Latino adolescents’ coping with ethnic-racial discrimination. Racism and discrimination continue to be a fact of life for many students of color on college campuses. Coping with discrimination from peers and adults: Implications for adolescents’ school belonging. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Copyright © 2021 The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Epub 2017 Nov 4. Phinney and Chavira’s results indicated that adolescents used five different strategies to deal with discrimination. Parental ethnic socialization and adolescent coping with problems related to ethnicity. Adolescents were classified as using Passive coping style if they only mentioned Ignore as a way of dealing with discrimination. The first published study that used this measure is Umaña-Taylor, Vargas-Chanes et al. 2007 Mar;32(2):189-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2006.08.002. Our results provide vital insight into the ways TGD people are coping with, and being affected by, discrimination. Group identification is relevant to coping with perceived discrimination among members of stigmatized minority groups ( Rüsch et al., 2009b ). Jones, S. M., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., McDermott, E. R., Sladek, M.R., & Rivas-Drake, D. (2020). J Clin Psychol. Adolescents in the Proactive coping style reported Discuss, Self-affirmation, and Disprove as the ways to deal with such issues. The same as the original scale. Racial discrimination was assessed using the Everyday Discrimination Scale (α=0.95), and was coded using two conventional approaches: (1) situation-based coding : number of different situations ever experienced; (2) frequency-based coding : sum of Likert scale responses ranging from 'never' to 'almost everyday'; and (3) a new chronicity-based coding approach: sum of responses, weighted to capture … Engagement strategies were coping with discrimination using resistance and education/advocacy.  |  The Coping Circumplex Model: An Integrative Model of the Structure of Coping With Stress. aña-Taylor created Likert-type scale items to quantitatively assess the experiences described in Phinney and Chavira’s study. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 16-50. doi:10.1177/0272431607308666, Additional Citations for Studies in which the Measure Has Been Used. Thus, the goals of the studies presented here were to (a) develop a coping with discrimination scale and (b) examine the factor struc-ture, reliability, and validity of this new scale… Front Psychol. Thirty women with social phobia were recruited at the department of psychiatry and psychotherapy of the Univ… COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. (2008). J Youth Adolesc. A longitudinal examination of Latino adolescents’ ethnic identity, coping with discrimination, and self-esteem. The DCSS has been used with Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI), American Indian or Native American, Black, Latinx, Non-White Multi-ethnic, and American Arab, Middle Eastern, and North African (AMENA) adolescent populations in the U.S. Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Vargas-Chanes, D., Garcia, C. D., & Gonzales-Backen, M. (2008). Based on their responses to the strategies they used, Phinney and Chavira further classified adolescents as belonging to one of three different styles for coping with prejudice and discrimination. Four studies were conducted to develop and validate the Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 37(6), 730-742. doi:10.1177/0734282918792384, McDermott, E. R., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Zeiders, K. H. (2019). Epub 2007 Jul 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Discrimination Coping Strategies Scale (DCSS) including its factor structure, validity, and longitudinal measurement invariance. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis (N = 328) provided cross-validation of the 5-factor model as well as evidence for validity of the scale. The same as the original scale. Would you like email updates of new search results? Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Detachment were positively associated with active coping, self-blame, substance use, and behavioral disengagement, respectively, providing further support for validity of the CDS. Discrimination Coping Strategies Scale (DCSS). Published 2010. To assess the psychometric properties of the measure for use with sexual minorities (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, or GLB persons), a nonprobability sample of 371 GLB adults completed the instrument along with several standardized, self-report measures. Based on their responses to the strategies they used, Phinney and Chavira further classified adolescents as belonging to one of three different styles for coping with prejudice and discrimination. McDermott ER, Umaña-Taylor AJ, Zeiders KH. Adolescents in the Proactive coping style reported Discuss, Self-affirmation, and Disprove as the ways to deal with such issues. The DISC is interviewer administered a 20-item version of the Coping with Discrimination Scale (subscales used were Education & Advocacy, Detachment, Drug & Alcohol use, Resistance and Internalisation), a 8-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) – Depression scale for depression symptoms and When the researchers say brief – they mean brief! Introducing a brief measure of cultural and religious identification in American Jewish identity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. The first published study that used this measure is Umaña-Taylor, Vargas-Chanes et al. Psychometric properties of multigroup ethnic identity measure (MEIM) scores with Australian adolescents from diverse ethnocultural groups. Abstract. 2019 May;48(5):908-923. doi: 10.1007/s10964-018-0958-7. Measuring Latino adolescents’ coping with ethnic-racial discrimination. 2010 Jul;57(3):345-60. doi: 10.1037/a0019577. In this study, we examined how engagement and disengagement strategies for coping with discrimination might explain how gendered racism influences psychological distress among 212 African American women enrolled in an institution of higher education. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (N = 328) identified 5 factors: Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, Resistance, and Detachment, with internal consistency reliability estimates ranging from 0.72 to 0.90. Dandy J, Durkin K, McEvoy P, Barber BL, Houghton S. J Adolesc. 2004. Adolescents in the Aggressive coping style mentioned the use of Verbal Retort, without mentioning the use of any proactive strategy. Four studies were conducted to develop and validate the Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS). McDermott, E. R., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Martinez-Fuentes, S. (2018). Coping with Racial Discrimination: Coping Strategies, Critical Ethnic Awareness, and Psychosocial Resources for Asian Americans . Experience of discrimination. coping with discrimination strategies influence the association between perceived discrimination and mental health outcomes. Front Psychiatry. In Study 3, the estimated 2-week test-retest reliabilities (N = 53) were between .48 and .85 for the 5 factors. Research on Asian American college students’ experiences with racial ethnic microaggressions and their coping strategies is scant. Profiles of Coping with Ethnic-Racial Discrimination and Latina/o Adolescents' Adjustment. The current study is a phenomenological exploration of coping with perceived racial and gender discrimination experiences among 11 Asian/Asian American female faculty at various Christian universities. If you are planning to translate the DCSS into other languages, please send the final version of the measure and any information on how the measure held up in analyses to Adriana Umaña-Taylor. examined medical and mental health treatment, access to public restrooms, identity documentation, housing, and employment as an index of exposure to various types of discrimination. McDermott, E. R., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Martinez-Fuentes, S. (2019). [Unpublished manuscript]. (in press). Coping with discrimination: The insidious effects of gender minority stigma on depression and anxiety in transgender individuals. Phinney, J. S., & Chavira, V. (1995). Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Among men, passive coping behaviors in response to lifetime discrimination were associated with greater VAT, but not SAT, volumes in age-adjusted models (78.5±32.0, P< 0.05; Table 5). Family ethnic socialization predicts better academic outcomes via proactive coping with discrimination and increased self-efficacy. Ten of the 11 women described experiences where they perceived being treated differently due to race and/or gender. Journal of counseling psychology. Doctoral Committee:  |  The Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS) shows promise as a self-report measure of strategies for coping with racial discrimination. Disc is interviewer administered coping Response to discrimination 2021 the President and Fellows Harvard... ’ ethnic identity, coping with discrimination: the insidious effects of minority... 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